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Myazedi inscription

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Myazedi-Inscription-Mon Myazedi inscription, inscribed in 1113, is the oldest surviving stone inscription of the Burmese language. "Myazedi" means "emerald stupa" ("zedi" being akin to the Pali "cetiya" and Thai "chedi"), and the name of the inscription comes from a pagoda located nearby. The inscriptions were made in four languages: Burmese, Pyu, Mon, and Pali, which all tell the story of Prince Yazakumar and King Kyansittha. The primary importance of the Myazedi inscription is that the inscriptions allowed for the deciphering of the written Pyu language.

There are two main inscriptions in Burma today. One exists on the platform of the Myazedi Pagoda, in the village of Myinkaba (south of Bagan), in Mandalay Division. The other was discovered by German Pali scholar Dr. Emanuel Forchhammer in 1886-1887 and is currently in display at the Bagan Archaeological Museum. The Myazedi inscription is recognised as Memory of the World Register by UNESCO.


Table of contents
  1. Translation and Analysis
  2. In Pali

Translation and Analysis

The inscription has 39 lines in Burmese language, 41 lines in Pali, 33 lines in Mon Language and 26 lines in Pyu language. It can be generally divided into three categories, donation, wish and curse. The nearest translation is as follows:
Siri [May everything happen successfully], Namobuddhaya [I say my prayers to Lord Buddha]. It had been over 1628 Sasana years. In this Arimaddamapura Empire [Bagan empire], there was a king named Sri Tribhuvanaditya Dhammaraja [Kyansittha]. His beloved wife was Trilokavatansaka devi [ Thanbula ]. Her son was named Yazakumar. The king gave three servant villages to his beloved wife. After the wife died, the king gave her possessions and the three villages to her son, Yazakumar. As the king was becoming ill after reigning for 28 years, Yazakumar, acknowledging the love for the king, made a golden Buddha statue and gave to the king. Then he said: "This golden statue is dedicated to my king. As he gave the three servant villages, I, in return, give this golden statue. After the donation, the king has died. Sadu,Sadu. "In front of the monks, Mahahtae, Mogaliputtatithahtae, Tan, Tingha tanavarapantai, he poured water. After that he built a place to put his golden statue. He then gave away the pagoda. He reigned over three villages, Tinmunalun (??????????), Yapal (?????) and Hanvho (????????). After pouring water over his pagoda, he said "For those deeds, may I obtain the Sabba˝uta Đan(???????????). If my son, my grandson, my relative or others abuse the servants I donated for my pagoda, they shall not be able to see Maitreya Buddha.
Analysis

The typical Bagan handwriting was either rectangular or circular in shape, but in this inscription, the handwriting reassembles Tamarind seeds. Being the beginning of Myanmar Literature, some words were not written systematically, that is, the consonants and vowels were separated (e.g,"?????????? ????????????????" was written as "????? ??????" on a line, and "???????????????" written on the next line).

There were only words for the first person,"I" and "my",in Bagan period.In the inscription,instead of "he",Yazakumar referred to himself as "The son of the beloved wife"(?????????????)and "it" was referred as "This"(?/???).Some words had archaic meanings(e.g,???,which has modern meaning of "abandon",meant "Lovely ,or beloved"and ????, meaning "relax" or "mix thoroughly",meant "donate").

Yazakumar referred to his father as Sri Tribhuvanaditya Dhammaraja,meaning "The king who can enlighten all three worlds like the sun",his mother as Trilokavatansaka devi (The queen who could lead all three worlds) and the Pagan Empire as Arimaddanapura Empire (Meaning: The place where they can successfully outnumber enemies) respectively.

The purpose of the donation category is to let people appreciate their deeds. The wishing category is part of the tradition of Buddhism. The main intention of writing curse to preserve the donations and to prevent donated structures from being damaged.

From this inscription, the reign periods of Kyansittha, Anawrahta, Saw Lu,and Alaungsithu can be calculated, old Pyu Language can be learnt, and Yazakumar's respect and love for his father can be observed.


In Pali

In Pali language, the inscription reads:
  1. Sri. Buddhadikam vatthuvaram namitva pa˝˝am katam yam jinasa
  2. sanasmim anarikam Rajakumara namadheyyena vakkha
  3. mi sunatha metam. Nibbana lokanathassa athavi
  4. sadike gate sahasse pana vassanam chasate va pare ta
  5. -tha. Arimaddananamasmim pure asi mahabbalo raja
  6. Tibhuvanadicco udicca diccavamsajo. Tassa te
  7. ka piya devi sa Tilokavatamsika hi
  8. tesi kusala sabbekiccesu pana rajino. Ta
  9. ssa seko suto Rajakumaro nama namat-
  10. -o amacco rajakiccesu byavato satima
  11. vidu. Ada gamattayam tassa deviya soma
  12. hipati pasanno sabbada dasa pribhogena bu˝˝jitum.
  13. Aniccata vasam tassa gataya pana deviya ra-
  14. -ja Rajakumarassa ada gamattayam puna. Athavisa
  15. -ti vassani rajjam dhammena katriya maranantika rogassa-
  16. vassam patte naradipe. Saranto dhammarajassa mahantam gu-
  17. na sa˝˝cayam karetva satthuno bimbam sabbasovanna-
  18. yam subham. Gahetva tam mahatena sakkarena sumanaso
  19. upasankamma rajanam aha cintitamattano. Bhavamkatva
  20. nidam satthubimbam sovannyam subham akasim vo va-
  21. -ram pu˝˝am sami tumhe numodatha. Gamattayam pivo
  22. sami pubbe dinnantu me again imasseva munidassa demi ta
  23. ˝˝ca numodatha. Evam vutte mahipalo roge
  24. naturamanaso sadhu, sadhuti vatvana tuthahattho
  25. pamodito. Daya payo mahatheyo theyo muggali
  26. puttako sumedhatta sumedhoti laddhanamo ca pantito
  27. brahmapalo tatha brhamadevo sampanna silava so no
  28. bahussuto samghasena vho varapantito. Etesam pa-
  29. na bikkhunam sammukha so sumanaso jalam patesi katavana sa-
  30. kkhintu vasudhatalam. Tato so tan mahamacco bibam so va-
  31. -nnayam subham patithapiya karesi guham ka˝˝canathupikam.
  32. Katvana mangalam Buddhapatimaya guhayaca akasevam pani
  33. dhanam nibbinno bhavasankate. Karonetana maya etam yam pu-
  34. -˝˝am tam samacitam hotu sabba˝˝uta ˝˝ana pative dha-
  35. -ya paccayo. Yattaka ta maya dasa gamattayaniva-
  36. -sino dinna guhaya sovannapatimaya mahesi
  37. no. Putto me va paputto va a˝˝o va pana˝˝a
  38. tako yo koci papa samkappo naro assaddha
  39. manaso. Kareyyupadduvam tesam dasanam si naramamo
  40. Metteya dipadindassa dassanam nathigacchatu
  41. ti.

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